Levels of Educational Gaming – How to implement games and gamification into education. Want to know how to implement games into your classroom? In this video I describe my levels of educational gaming which break game implementation into levels from easy to hard to give educators and teachers an idea of how they can use games for learning, but also you can uses online games to make that kids enjoy their free time, and for sure you can get here an introduction to online casino match bonus offers.
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I’ve often referred to learning styles as one of the great unicorns in education. If you believe they are real, I challenge you to prove it! We currently have no evidence they exist and we have plenty of learning theories, with tons of evidence, showing how we learn. Those theories are contrary to learning styles. So if you don’t believe what I am telling you, what the research shows, please prove me wrong! I dare you! In fact, this site, worklearning.com will actually pay you $5,000 if you can prove they are real! So let me tell you how to do it if you are inclined to prove me wrong!
How to prove learning styles are real:
- 1. Select a learning style test. There are 100s so you need to pick one. Each defines learning styles differently (just the start of the nonsense that is learning styles)
- 2. Show validity and reliability evidence for the test (i describe in the video below how to do this)
- 3. Give the test to participants and divide them into 2 groups (ie visual vs kinesthetic)
- 4. Have at least 35 people in each group
- 5. Develop content for each group. For one group, use only their learning style. For example, for the visual group develop only visual content. Then for the kinesthetic group use both visual and verbal content.
- 6. Test participants on high (problem solving) and low (factual) content and compare results. You must prove that learning style made a difference. So you would need the visual group to perform best.
What do you think the results will be?
If you believe in learning styles and choose to ignore all research: You would believe that the Kinesthetic group should do terrible. They learn best with hands on activities. The visual group will do better because they are getting visual content.
If you believe is 1000s of research studies we currently have, all data, all evidence: The kinesthetic group will outperform the visual group on factual and problem solving knowledge. Why? Because we know that people learn better from visual and audio vs just visual. Learning style, learning preference, etc. has no bearing on this. You can say you are a visual learner, hands on learner, etc all you want but it doesn’t matter. You will perform well when you have well designed instruction regardless of what you think your learning style is.
And if you think the content was unfair since the kinesthetic group had visual + audio narration, just give both groups the same visual content and guess what, they will both perform the same. The visual group would NOT outperform the other group. Learning styles do NOT matter because they aren’t real. We have countless studies showing this phenomenon.
Here is a video that walks you through this:
Meetings drive me nuts! Why? Because 90% of the time (made up stat) they are a waste of my time. The information could of been sent in an email that would of taken me 5 minutes to read. That is not to say meetings are bad, there are many times they are needed and the best course of action. As a result, I have put together 7 different tips to run a better, effective, faster, efficient, meeting.
Basic tip that nearly everyone does but make sure you always have one.
2. Time each item
This helps your meeting run on time. Do not spend time on 1 of 5 items. Move on! Especially if that one item only affects 1 of 10 people at the meeting.
Just having an agenda and time will help you facilitate. Make sure everyone can be heard not just the one person that keeps asking questions to take you off topic.
4. No recurring meeting
Have meetings when you actually need to have a meeting. Otherwise its a waste of time.
5. Don’t have a meeting to plan more meetings
Use a calendar. Don’t have a meeting to schedule more.
6. Use email
Have a meeting when you need to have a meeting. Use email or talk 1 on 1 when you can.
7. Stand up
Get rid of chairs. This ensures people will make the meeting fast. This gets rid of those all day meetings that waste everyone’s time. Yea maybe its extreme but I love the idea!
Here is my video which goes into more depth for each tip:
Please see video for more in-depth explanations: https://youtu.be/NUbf5hi1sP4
To cite this:
Pastore, R. (2019). 3D Learning. Retrieved from http:// https://raypastore.com/wordpress/2019/03/3d-learning/
Link to PDF version: https://raypastore.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/3dLearning-1.pdf
1.0 What is 3D Learning?
- Theory that expands on prior 2D cognitive theories (i.e. theories that focused on text and images) to explain how we process content to learn in the real world through all domains (psychomotor/affective/cognitive), from games, experience, virtual reality, hand on activities, etc.
- Its organic – living and changing
- Research has only begun to scratch the surface
2.0 Background Framework
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) – Memory Theory/Information Processing
- Memory has 3 parts – sensory, short term, and long term.
- Information is first delivered to sensory memory. In this stage the learner decides how to handle the information or its forgotten
- Short term/Working Memory – This is where information is processed.
- Long term memory – indefinite storage capacity. Information can be stored here and retrieved for later use in working memory.
Miller (1956) – Working memory capacity
- Learners can hold 7 concepts, plus or minus 2, in working memory at one time depending on how meaningful they are
Baddeley & Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (2000) – Model of Working Memory
- Working memory/short term memory has a short duration and is controlled by the central executive. It has 2 channels, one for visual/spatial information and one for verbal information
Paivio (1979) and Paivio (1986) – Dual Coding Theory
Working memory is composed of two channels – verbal and nonverbal (visual). Each channel can function independently or they can work together to use information or store it in long term memory.
Mayer (2001) and Mayer (2005) – Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)
- Expands on Baddeley and Paivio’s theories
- The CTML is based on three assumptions
- (1) working memory is made up of a dual modality (dual coding) input channel system,
- (2) there is a limited capacity in working memory, and
- (3) that learners engage in active processing.
Moreno (2006) – Cognitive Affective Theory of Multimedia Learning
- The CATML is Based on the following assumptions:
- independent information
- processing channels
- limited working memory capacity and virtually unlimited
- capacity long-term memory
- dual coding
- active Processing
- affective mediation
- metacognitive mediation
- individual differences
- These are limited in scope – 2D – Only focused on verbal and visual information (*CATML does focus on more but still only hypothesizes that we use verbal and visual channels)
- We still have people trying to use learning styles and multiple intelligences even though research does not support them because they seem to make ‘sense’ to people
- How does any of this account for real hands on learning? Gaming? Virtual reality? Where we use other means of learning besides images and words (narration).
- Much of our learning combines all domains of learning. Psychomotor and affective tasks require cognitive resources (i.e. are using in working memory). The domains of learning are great for instructional strategy development but do not help explain what happens in working memory.
So I started digging…
- One of the first surprising pieces of information I found was from Baddeley (2012). This really sent me down the rabbit’s hole. “…can other modalities such as smell and taste be added without impacting visual or verbal capacity? Are there separate subsystems for smell and taste?” (p. 23) (Baddeley 2012)
- Then I started finding things like this from Quak, et al (2015) who says that we tend to look at the way we process information in a stationary fashion, examining 1-2 channels at a time (i.e. text and images) whereas in real life we take on many at a time – hearing, smell, sight, taste, etc.
Then I started to look at the way we work, play games, use our senses…
- For example, when we play a video game we are using our ears, eyes, and hands. So I started looking at the biology of humans. Specifically focusing on the senses and found that biologists recognize many senses (20-30 or more) such as Visual, Auditory, Haptic/kinesthetic, Olfactory, etc. I was surprised, but yes, we have many other senses. More than the standard 5 many of us learned in grade school. For example, hunger and thirst. Our body has a lot of senses.
And just like that, I realized we have researched some of these other modalities, though that research was rare and scattered. For instance, Jonsson et al (2011, p.1023) state that examining how the senses (i.e. olfactory system) operate in working memory has “received almost no attention in the literature”. Here is a sample of what I found:
- Andrade and Donaldson (2007) conducted a series of experiments that found that there was a modality specific space in working memory for a learner’s olfactory system. These results were then again confirmed by Jonsson, et. al (2011).
- Lerch, Cui, Patwardhan, & Visell (2016) conducted an experiment which found that haptic information can be stored in working memory and has its own channel. Seaborn, Riecke & Antle 2010 found similar results.
- So we have some initial evidence that these senses have their own place in working memory! Now this makes sense. The research is aligned to what we really experience. This explains what is happening in working memory when we learn from games, virtual reality, and in the real world! Now I am excited!
4.0 What I realized is that we have been focusing on a very small piece to a very large puzzle!
- 3D Learning is a theory that expands on prior 2D cognitive theories (i.e. theories that focused on text and images) to explain how we process content to learn in the real world through all domains (psychomotor/affective/cognitive), from games, from experience, in virtual reality, from hand on activities, etc.
- Its organic – living and changing
- Research has only begun to scratch the surface
- The model:
- Multiple Input sources
- Multiple input sources – There are a number of input sources that humans experience. These include vision, hearing, feeling, doing, smelling, tasting and many more
- Sensory Memory
- Sensory memory is where we first experience the input and put it into working memory or dismiss it
- Working Memory
- Learners have/can process information through a number of channels in working memory (i.e. visual, verbal, haptic/kinesthetic, olfactory, and more)
- Learners can process multiple channels at the same time (can work together or independently from one another).
- No matter how many channels we have, we can still only store a limited # of concepts in working memory
- Training can improve each channel.
- Learners will have natural strengths and preferences for one channel vs another.
- Learners can work with prior knowledge from long term memory
- Long term Memory
- Long term memory is said to be indefinite
- Multiple Input sources
5.0 What’s next…
- We need to expand the multimedia principles…and probably should be calling them the principles of learning
- What are the other channels/how many?
- Olfactory, haptic/kinesthetic, taste, etc. How many do we have?
- What combinations work best? How many is too many?
- For example, using our eyes, ears, and hands. Is that too many? How does that impact cognitive load?
- This is especially crucial to the gaming literature as virtual reality starts to become more common for hands on training
Andrade J. & Donaldson L. (2007). Evidence for an olfactory store in working memory?
Psychologia, 50, 76-89.
Atkinson, R.C., and Shiffrin, R.M.(1968). Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes. Psychol. Learn. Motiv. 2, 89–195.doi:10.1016/s0079- 7421(08)60422-3
Baddeley, A.D., and Hitch, G.(1974).Working memory. Psychol. learn. Motiv. 8, 47–89. doi:10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60452-1
Baddeley, A. (2012). Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2012.63:1-29.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423.
Jonsson, F., Moller, P., & Olsson, M. (2011). Olfactory working memory: effects of verbalization. Memory and Cognition, 39, 1023-1032.
Lerch, R., Cui, H., Patwardhan, S., & Visell, Y. (2016). Exploring haptic working memory as a capacity-limited information channel. Presented at the IEEE Haptics Symposium Conference.
Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R., E. (2005). Introduction to multimedia learning. In R. Mayer (Ed.), The cambridge handbook of multimedia (pp. 1-16). NY: Cambridge University Press.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Paivio, A. (1971).Imagery and Verbal Processes, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (Reprinted 1979, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey).
Quak, M., London, R., & Talsma, D. (2015). A multisensory perspective of working memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 9, 1-11.
Seaborn, Katie & Riecke, Bernhard & Antle, Alissa. (2010). Exploring the interplay of visual and haptic modalities in a pattern-matching task. Paper presented at the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Games
Please see the video for more info:
Call for papers:
The Journal of Training, Design, and Technology (JTDT) is a new online journal seeking submissions.
JTDT is designed to bring together current practices and research. The journals focus is on the following:
Research – manuscripts
Practice – case studies, lessons learned, etc
Analysis and Evaluation
Types of papers:
Brief articles (on current practice or theory)
Strategy reviews (Using a strategy in the workplace/classroom)
Special Topic papers
All papers are blind peer reviewed.
Deadline – There is no deadline as volumes will continuously be released. First volume will be published 3/1/2017 with more after that.
The students are back. UNCW admitted 2100 freshmen – Wow that’s a lot. It’s a very exciting time for these students. I don’t usually teach undergraduates and when I do they are juniors/seniors so I never get to see when they are still figuring things out. But for those that new to college and not sure what you want to do my advice is this…
Take a bunch of classes in different subjects to see what you want to do
Figure out which type of jobs each major leads to
Figure out what kind of salaries each major leads to
Figure out what students in the majors are actually doing when they graduate
Talk to faculty about your future goals and steps to get there
Then ask yourself what would you enjoy doing for the rest of your life. Keep in mind that you aren’t getting your dream job out of college (well maybe you will buy many will not) and figure out the path to get there. Meet with faculty and take advantage of what the college has to offer. Too many students pick a major they might not like just because they think it might lead to a good career. A good career comes out of passion and hard work. So choose wisely…you can only change careers so many times…sometimes you can’t.